The Karma Kettles are part of an effort to use design to explore the social impacts of algorithmic transactions within decentralised systems of energy generation and consumption. In contrast to traditional centralised national grids, distributed systems allow for smaller enterprises and households to produce and sell energy in a free market economy. They are supported by technologies such as blockchains, smart contracts and programmable batteries, and enable more flexible energy production, distribution and trade, which are often considered key to support wider adoption of renewable energy sources.
The Karma kettles were designed to elicit reactions towards potential outcomes of distributed energy systems and discuss expectations of control over automated transactions more generally. The connected kettles mimic a scenario where devices can store and carry out transactions (push/pull) to distribute energy manually and/or autonomously. Users can see the state of the local grid and storage networks, and choose to use (boil), pull (store) or push (give) energy into the grid. The kettle then reward the user according to the how much the action benefitted the state of the grid and the communal good, translating this action into an energy “karma” points.
The kettles have been used in public engagement workshops at exhibitions and with groups of residents in a large block of flats in Edinburgh. Interviews with participant groups reveal the potential for IoT devices to support end-consumer energy trade and bottom-up energy generation which could help to support a transition to more sustainable sources of energy. Insights will help inform best practices for future applications and governance of the algorithmically mediated energy transactions.
The project was funded through the EPSRC PETRAS IoT in the Home demonstrator, led by Dr. Larissa Pschetz, designed and developed by Billy Dixon and Esteban Serrano. Participant studies were carried out by Dr Luis Soares.